"Jackson was not only a genocidal maniac against the Indigenous Peoples of the southwest, he was also racist against African peoples and a scofflaw who “violated nearly every standard of justice,” according to historian Bertram Wyatt-Brown. As a major general in 1818, Jackson invaded Spanish Florida chasing fugitive slaves who had escaped with the intent of returning them to their “owners,” and sparked the First Seminole War.
Read more at http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2012/02/20/indian-killer-andrew-jackson-deserves-top-spot-list-worst-us-presidents-98997
Creek War and Duelist
"As Rogin puts it: "Jackson had conquered 'the cream of the Creek country,' and it would guarantee southwestern prosperity. He had supplied the expanding cotton kingdom with a vast and valuable acreage." Jackson's 1814 treaty with the Creeks started something new and important. It granted Indians individual ownership of land, thus splitting Indian from Indian, breaking up communal landholding, bribing some with land, leaving others out-introducing the competition and conniving that marked the spirit of Western capitalism. It fitted well the old Jeffersonian idea of how to handle the Indians, by bringing them into "civilization."
The Creeks, who occupied most of Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi, were divided among themselves. Some were willing to adopt the civilization of the white man in order to live in peace. Others, insisting on their land and their culture, were called "Red Sticks." The Red Sticks in 1813 massacred 250 people at Fort Mims, whereupon Jackson's troops burned down a Creek village, killing men, women, children. Jackson established the tactic of promising rewards in land and plunder: ". .. if either party, cherokees, friendly creeks, or whites, takes property of the Red Sticks, the property belongs to those who take it."(Chapter 7, "As Long As Grass Grows" from "People's History of the US." by Howard Zinn).
The Good the Bad and the Ugly
"President Andrew Jackson, however, was utterly uncompromising. During the Creek War, when his troops decided to desert, Jackson rode out in front of them and threatened, ‘I’ll shoot dead the first man who makes a move to leave!’ Jackson was to employ the same tactics against South Carolina, treating a member of a federal republic with fair grievances like he would an insubordinate soldier under his command. In his ‘Nullification Proclamation,’ Jackson rejected any compromise on the issues of tariffs or States’ rights. Jackson proclaimed, ‘I consider…the power to annul a law of the United States, assumed by one State, incompatible with the existence of the Union, contradicted expressly by the letter of the Constitution, unauthorized by its spirit, inconsistent with every principle on which it was founded, and destructive of the great object for which it was formed.’" (cite link above)
Davey Crockett Vs. Old Hickory
"At the same time, however, the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole were undergoing a major economic, cultural, and political revolution. Aware that they could not coexist with the whites if they continued in their traditional way of life, these Indian tribes began to acculturate to America, becoming known as the ‘Five Civilised Tribes’ in the process. The Indians abandoned hunting and foraging for agriculture and manufacturing, established schools and churches, built roads and bridges, published newspapers, formed constitutions and bills of rights, dressed in American-style clothing, and intermarried with Americans.
At times, the Five Civilised Tribes often seemed more ‘white’ than ‘red’ – so much so that Virginia Senator Henry A. Wise commented that the Cherokee were actually ‘more advanced in civilization’ than most Georgians! For instance, the Cherokee chief John Ross, or White Bird, was the son of a Scottish Tory who had fled to the West to escape persecution in the East and married a Cherokee woman, a veteran of the War of 1812 who had fought beside Jackson at Horseshoe Bend, a framer of the Cherokee constitution, and a landowning and slaveholding planter. In every respect, Ross and Andrew Jackson were equals; indeed, they were once friends.
Earlier, the warlike Indians had posed a threat to the safety of American frontiersman, but the rise of acculturated, ‘civilised’ Indians now posed a threat to the American acquisition of fertile, cotton-growing land. In 1827, the Cherokee adopted a constitution which declared themselves ‘sovereign and independent.’ Georgia, where most of the Cherokee lived, was alarmed by this declaration of independence, and when Andrew Jackson was elected President, nullified the federal treaty with the Cherokee by asserting her sovereignty over the tribe. Georgia was counting on the old Indian fighter’s sympathy and support, and she counted correctly: in Jackson’s first address to the Congress, he accommodated Georgia’s nullification by calling for a policy of removing the Indians from States in the East to territory in the Trans-Mississippi.
Andrew Jackson framed Indian removal as an issue of ‘humanity,’ arguing that if the tribes remained in the East they would be doomed to extinction but if they resettled in the West then their cultures would flourish. As with the ‘Bank War’ (either the Second Bank of the United States or no national bank!) or the ‘Nullification Crisis’ (either submission or disunion!), Jackson had framed a false choice. There was no threat to the Indians’ survival; the only threat was to the Americans’ greed for more land. ‘Those who really control the administration, are governed by the lowest and most sordid object of gain, I do not in the least doubt,’ remarked Vice President John C. Calhoun. ‘Indian treaties and the removal of the Indians with all of their contracts and jobs have doubtless opened a wide field to their cupidity.’ Nevertheless, an Indian removal bill, proposed by a Tennessee Congressman in the House of Representatives and a Tennessee Senator in the Senate, passed in a narrow vote of 102-97 and 28-19, respectively, and was immediately signed into law by Jackson. Congressman Davy Crockett was the sole member of the Tennessee delegation to vote against the bill, an act which cost him his seat in the next election:
I opposed it from the purest motives in the world. Several of my colleagues got around me, and told me how well they loved me, and that I was ruining myself. They said it was a favorite measure of the President, and I ought to go for it. I told them I believed it was a wicked, unjust measure, and that I should go against it, let the cost to myself be what it might. That I was willing to go with General Jackson in everything that I believed was right; but, further than this, I wouldn’t go for him, or any man in the whole creation; I would sooner be honestly and politically d[am]ned, than hypocritically immortalized […] I voted against the Indian bill, and my conscience yet tells me that I gave a good and honest vote, and one that I believe will not make me ashamed in the day of judgment. source
"As soon as Jackson was elected President, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi began to pass laws to extend the states' rule over the Indians in their territory. These laws did away with the tribe as a legal unit, outlawed tribal meetings, took away the chiefs' powers, made the Indians subject to militia duty and state taxes, but denied them the right to vote, to bring suits, or to testify in court. Indian territory was divided up, to be distributed by state lottery. Whites were encouraged to settle on Indian land.
However, federal treaties and federal laws gave Congress, not the states, authority over the tribes. The Indian Trade and Intercourse Act, passed by Congress in 1802, said there could be no land cessions except by treaty with a tribe, and said federal law would operate in Indian territory. Jackson ignored this, and supported state action.
....As Secretary of War John Eaton explained to the Creeks of Alabama (Alabama itself was an Indian name, meaning "Here we may rest"): "It is not your Great Father who does this; but the laws of the Country, which he and every one of his people is bound to regard."
The proper tactic had now been found. The Indians would not be "forced" to go West. But if they chose to stay they would have to abide by state laws, which destroyed their tribal and personal rights and made them subject to endless harassment and invasion by white settlers coveting their land. If they left, however, the federal government would give them financial support and promise them lands beyond the Mississippi. Jackson's instructions to an army major sent to talk to the Choctaws and Cherokees put it this way: Say to my real Choctaw children, and my Chickasaw children to listen-my white children of Mississippi have extended their law over their country. .. . Where they now are, say to them, their father cannot prevent them from being subject to the laws of the state of Mississippi. . .. The general government will be obliged to sustain the States in the exercise of their right. Say to the chiefs and warriors that I am their friend, that I wish to act as their friend but they must, by removing from the limits of the States of Mississippi and Alabama and by being settled on the lands I offer them, put it in my power to be such-There, beyond the limits of any State, in possession of land of their own, which they shall possess as long as Grass grows or water runs. I am and will protect them and be their friend and father.
That phrase "as long as Grass grows or water runs" was to be recalled with bitterness by generations of Indians. (An Indian GI, veteran of Vietnam, testifying publicly in 1970 not only about the horror of the war but about his own maltreatment as an Indian, repeated that phrase and began to weep.)
(Note; According to an earlier cite, this was the exact same phrase that Jackson used to thank the Cherokee who saved his life in battle.) Source:
Cherokee Nation destroyed by Congress by a single vote
"The Cherokee vehemently protested the fraudulent Treaty of New Echota. Shortly after the negotiations were concluded, John Ross authored a heartfelt memorial to the Senate on behalf of the Cherokee council, begging them not to ratify the treaty:
In truth, our cause is your own. It is the cause of liberty and justice. It is based upon your own principle which we have learned from yourselves; for we have gloried to count your Washington and Jefferson our great teachers. We have practiced their precepts with success and the result is manifest. The wilderness of forest has given place to comfortable dwellings and cultivated fields…We have learned your religion also. We have read your sacred books. Hundreds of our people have embraced their doctrines, practiced the virtue they teach, cherished the hopes they awaken. We speak to the representatives of a Christian country; the friends of justice; the patrons of the oppressed; and our hopes revive, and our prospects brighten, as we indulge the thought. On your sentence our fate is suspended, on your kindness, on your humanity, on your compassion, on your benevolence, we rest our hopes.The ‘Great Triumvirate’ of John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster, respectively representing the South, the West, and the North, opposed the Treaty of New Echota, but their efforts were to no avail against the Jacksonian majority; the treaty was ratified by a single vote."
Cherokee Try to Remind Old Hickory They Fought For Him
"As for the Cherokees, they faced a set of laws passed by Georgia: their lands were taken, their government abolished, all meetings prohibited. Cherokees advising others not to migrate were to be imprisoned. Cherokees could not testify in court against any white. Cherokees could not dig for the gold recently discovered on their land. A delegation of them, protesting to the federal government, received this reply from Jackson's new Secretary of War, Eaton: "If you will go to the setting sun there you will be happy; there you can remain in peace and quietness; so long as the waters run and the oaks grow that country shall be guaranteed to you and no white man shall be permitted to settle near you."The Cherokee nation addressed a memorial to the nation, a public plea for justice. They reviewed their history:
"After the peace of 1783, the Cherokees were an independent people, absolutely so, as much as any people on earth. They had been allies to Great Britain. . . . The United States never subjugated the Cherokees; on the contrary, our fathers remained in possession of their country and with arms in their hands. ... In 1791, the treaty of Holston was made.... The Cherokees acknowledged themselves to be under the protection of the United States, and of no other sovereign.... A cession of land was also made to the United States. On the other hand, the United States ... stipulated that white men should not hunt on these lands, not even enter the country, without, a passport; and gave a solemn guarantee of all Cherokee lands not ceded. . ..
They discussed removal:"We are aware that some persons suppose it will be for our advantage to remove beyond the Mississippi. We think otherwise. Our people universally think otherwise. . .. We wish to remain on the land of our fathers. We have a perfect and original right to remain without interruption or molestation. The treaties with us, and laws of the United States made in pursuance of treaties, guarantee our residence and our privileges, and secure us against intruders- Our only request is, that these treaties may be fulfilled, and these laws executed.. . .
Now they went beyond history, beyond law: "We entreat those to whom the foregoing paragraphs are addressed, to remember the great law of love. "Do to others as ye would that others should do to you." .. . We pray them to remember that, for the sake of principle, their forefathers were compelled to leave, therefore driven from the old world, and that the winds of persecution wafted them over the great waters and landed them on the shores of the new world, when the Indian was the sole lord and proprietor of these extensive domains-Let them remember in what way they were received by the savage of America, when power was in his hand, and his ferocity could not be restrained by any human arm. We urge them to bear in mind, that those who would not ask of them a cup of cold water, and a spot of earth ... are the descendants of these, whose origin, as inhabitants of North America, history and tradition are alike insufficient to reveal. Let them bring to remembrance all these facts, and they cannot, and we are sure, they will not fail to remember, and sympathize with us in these our trials and sufferings." Jackson's response to this, in his second Annual Message to Congress 111 December 1830, was to point to the fact that the Choctaws and Chickasaws had already agreed to removal, and that "a speedy removal" of the rest would offer many advantages to everyone. For whites it "will place a dense and civilized population in large tracts of country now occupied by a few savage hunters." For Indians, it will "perhaps cause them, gradually, under the protection of the Government and through the influence of good counsels, to cast off their savage habits and become an interesting, civilized, and Christian community."He reiterated a familiar theme. "Toward the aborigines of the country no one can indulge a more friendly feeling than myself. . . ." However: "The waves of population and civilization are rolling to the westward, and we now propose to acquire the countries occupied by the red men of the South and West by a fair exchange. . .."
Black Hawk War
"Black Hawk raised a white flag in an attempt to surrender, but his intentions may have been garbled in translation. The Americans, in no mood to accept a surrender anyway, thought that the Indians were using the white flag to set an ambush. When they became certain that the Natives on land were the British Band, they opened fire. Twenty-three Natives were killed in the exchange of gunfire, while just one soldier on the Warrior was injured." Wiki Entry for "Black Hawk"
"When Chief Black Hawk was defeated and captured in 1832, he made a surrender speech: I fought hard. But your guns were well aimed. The bullets flew like birds in the air, and whizzed by our cars like the wind through the trees in the winter. My warriors fell around me.. . . The sun rose dim on us in the morning, and at night it sunk in a dark cloud, and looked like a ball of fire. That was the last sun that shone on Black Hawk. ... He is now a prisoner to the white men.. .. He has done nothing for which an Indian ought to be ashamed. He has fought for his countrymen, the squaws and papooses, against white men, who came year after year, to cheat them and take away their lands. You know the cause of our making war. It is known to all white men. They ought to be ashamed of it. Indians are not deceitful. The white men speak bad of the Indian and look at him spitefully. But the Indian does not tell lies. Indians do not steal.
An Indian who is as bad as the white men could not live in our nation; he would be put to death, and eaten up by the wolves. The white men are bad schoolmasters; they carry false books, and deal in false actions; they smile in the face of the poor Indian to cheat him; they shake them by the hand to gain their confidence, to make them drunk, to deceive them, and ruin our wives. We told them to leave us alone, and keep away from us; they followed on, and beset our paths, and they coiled themselves among us, like the snake. They poisoned us by their touch. We were not safe. We lived in danger. We were becoming like them, hypocrites and liars, adulterous lazy drones, all talkers and no workers. .. .The white men do not scalp the head; but they do worse-they poison the heart.. . . Farewell, my nation! . .. Farewell to Black Hawk." (Chapter 7, ibid)
Second Seminole War
Execution of Two Brits during Seminole War
"The action of the First Seminole War that received the most public attention did not directly involve blacks or Indians, but rather two English men charged with aiding the Seminole allies. Robert Ambrister and Alexander Arbuthnot had ties of both commerce and espionage to the Seminoles. Arbuthnot traded with the Indians near St. Augustine, and blatantly took their cause in the fight against Jackson. Ambrister identified more with the Black Seminoles, saying that he came to Florida to complete the work of Lieutenant Woodbine (the British officer who had led the construction of the Negro Fort) and "see the negroes righted."
(These two Brits wrote letters detailing the true nature of the "war" which was not incited by an uprising, but Jackson's desire to grab Spanish land. The first example of a US President using a fake incident to start a war.)
"Andrew Jackson was not interested in seeing the viewpoints of Arbuthnot and Ambrister reach a wide audience. He convened a military court, which promptly ordered their execution. Overnight, the officers of the court had misgivings about executing Ambrister and commuted his sentence. Jackson overruled them. On April 29, 1818, Arbuthnot was hanged from the masthead of his schooner and Ambrister was shot by a firing squad. In executing the men, Jackson preserved the impression that Indians and outside agitators had created the problems in Florida. The two men, he said, had been "legally convicted as exciters of this savage and negro war; legally condemned, and most justly punished." Source
Second Creek War
"Land speculators and squatters began to defraud Creeks out of their allotments, and violence broke out, leading to the so-called "Creek War of 1836". Secretary of War Lewis Cass dispatched General Winfield Scott to end the violence by forcibly removing the Creeks to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. (wiki)
"The Creeks, defrauded of their land, short of money and food, refused to go West. Starving Creeks began raiding white farms, while Georgia militia and settlers attacked Indian settlements. Thus began the Second Creek War. One Alabama newspaper sympathetic to the Indians wrote: "The war with the Creeks is all humbug. It is a base and diabolical scheme, devised by interested men, to keep an ignorant race of people from maintaining their just rights, and to deprive them of the small remaining pittance placed under their control." A Creek man more than a hundred years old, named Speckled Snake, reacted to Andrew Jackson's policy of removal:
Brothers! I have listened to many talks from our great white father. When he first came over the wide waters, he was but a little man ... very little. His legs were cramped by sitting long in his big boat, and he begged for a little land to light his fire on. ... But when the white man had warmed himself before the Indians' fire and filled himself with their hominy, he became very large. With a step he bestrode the mountains, and his feet covered the plains and the valleys. His hand grasped the eastern and the western sea, and his head rested on the moon. Then he became our Great Father. He loved his red children, and he said, "Get a little further, lest I tread on thee."Brothers! I have listened to a great many talks from our great father. But they always began and ended in this-"Get a little further; you are too near me." source:Indian Fighter
First Attempt to Move Cherokee
"Jackson had been serving as a federal Indian commissioner when he launched his first effort to remove the Cherokees en masse. In 1817, he appeared with two other agents at the Cherokees’ council in Calhoun, just northeast of what is now Cleveland, Tennessee, to inform the tribe that if it refused to move west, it would have to submit to white men’s laws, no matter what any treaties might say. The chiefs dismissed the agents without hesitation. “Brothers, we wish to remain on our land, and hold it fast,” their signed statement said. “We appeal to our father the president of the United States to do us justice. We look to him for protection in the hour of distress.”
Through threats and bribery, Jackson eventually persuaded a few thousand Cherokees to leave Tennessee; Ross became the spokesman of those who remained—some 16,000 resolved to hold their ground. After years of trading land for peace, the council in 1822 passed a resolution vowing never to cede a single acre more. “If we had but one square mile left they would not be satisfied unless they could get it,” Ross wrote to Secretary of War John C. Calhoun that October, referring to state Indian commissioners who regularly tried to buy out the tribe. “But we hope that the United States will never forget her obligation to our nation.” source: Smithsonian
Howard Zinn's "People's History of the US" (alternate history)
"Indian Removal, as it has been politely called, cleared the land for white occupancy between the Appalachians and the Mississippi, cleared it for cotton in the South and grain in the North, for expansion, immigration, canals, railroads, new cities, and the building of a huge continental empire clear across to the Pacific Ocean. The cost in human life cannot be accurately measured, in suffering not even roughly measured. Most of the history books given to children pass quickly over it.
Statistics tell the story.... In 1820, 120,000 Indians lived east of the Mississippi. By 1844, fewer than 30,000 were left. Most of them had been forced to migrate westward. But the word "force" cannot convey what happened... In the Revolutionary War, almost every important Indian nation fought on the side of the British. The British signed for peace and went home; the Indians were already home, and so they continued fighting the Americans on the frontier, in a set of desperate holding operations. -- His Secretary of War, Henry Knox, said: "The Indians being the prior occupants, possess the right of the soil." His Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, said in 1791 that where Indians lived within state boundaries they should not be interfered with, and that the government should remove white settlers who tried to encroach on them."
..."Jackson was a land speculator, merchant, slave trader, and the most aggressive enemy of the Indians in early American history. He became a hero of the War of 1812, which was not (as usually depicted in American textbooks) just a war against England for survival, but a war for the expansion of the new nation, into Florida, into Canada, into Indian territory.."
Tecumseh, a Shawnee chief and noted orator, tried to unite the Indians against the white invasion: "The way, and the only way, to check and to stop this evil, is for all the Redmen to unite in claiming a common and equal right in the land, as it was at first and should be yet; for it was never divided, but belongs to all for the use of each. That no part has a right to sell, even to each other, much less to strangers-those who want all and will not do with less."
Howard Zinn Bibliography on related events
alternate history bibliography
Invasion of Florida and battles with the Seminoles
"From 1814 to 1824, in a series of treaties with the southern Indians, whites took over three-fourths of Alabama and Florida, one-third of Tennessee, one-fifth of Georgia and Mississippi, and parts of Kentucky and North Carolina. Jackson played a key role in those treaties, and, according to Rogin, "His friends and relatives received many of the patronage appointments-as Indian agents, traders, treaty commissioners, surveyors and land agents...."
Jackson himself described how the treaties were obtained: "... we addressed ourselves feelingly to the predominant and governing passion of all Indian tribes, i.e., their avarice or fear." He encouraged white squatters to move into Indian lands, then told the Indians the government could not remove the whites and so they had better cede the lands or be wiped out. He also, Rogin says, "practiced extensive bribery."
These treaties, these land grabs, laid the basis for the cotton kingdom, the slave plantations. Every time a treaty was signed, pushing the Creeks from one area to the next, promising them security there, whites would move into the new area and the Creeks would feel compelled to sign another treaty, giving up more land in return for security elsewhere.
Jackson's work had brought the white settlements to the border of Florida, owned by Spain. Here were the villages of the Seminole Indians, joined by some Red Stick refugees, and encouraged by British agents in their resistance to the Americans. Settlers moved into Indian lands. Indians attacked. Atrocities took place on both sides. When certain villages refused to surrender people accused of murdering whites, Jackson ordered the villages destroyed.
Another Seminole provocation: escaped black slaves took refuge in Seminole villages. Some Seminoles bought or captured black slaves, but their form of slavery was more like African slavery than cotton plantation slavery. The slaves often lived in their own villages, their children often became free, there was much intermarriage between Indians and blacks, and soon there were mixed Indian-black villages-all of which aroused southern slaveowners who saw this as a lure to their own slaves seeking freedom.
Jackson began raids into Florida, arguing it was a sanctuary for escaped slaves and for marauding Indians. Florida, he said, was essential to the defense of the United States. It was that classic modern preface to a war of conquest. Thus began the Seminole War of 1818, leading to the American acquisition of Florida. It appears on classroom maps politely as "Florida Purchase, 1819"-but it came from Andrew Jackson's military campaign across the Florida border, burning Seminole villages, seizing Spanish forts, until Spain was "persuaded" to sell. He acted, he said, by the "immutable laws of self-defense."
Jackson then became governor of the Florida Territory. He was able now to give good business advice to friends and relatives. To a nephew, he suggested holding on to property in Pensacola. To a friend, a surgeon-general in the army, he suggested buying as many slaves as possible, because the price would soon rise.
Leaving his military post, he also gave advice to officers on how to deal with the high rate of desertion. (Poor whites-even if willing to give their lives at first-may have discovered the rewards of battle going to the rich.) Jackson suggested whipping for the first two attempts, and the third time, execution" Chapter 7, "As Long as Grass Grows" "People's History of the US" by Howard Zinn.
Regarding the missing grave of his Indian son at the Hermitage... from a native american indian's blog:
"I began the week touring the Hermitage, home of the 7th president, Andrew Jackson. He is infamous for enacting the Indian Removal Act in 1830, which led to the tragedies on the Trail of Tears. I went not only because he is an important part of the Trail of Tears story, but also because I wanted to try to understand what motivated him to do such a thing to an entire race of people in the east. He fought alongside Indians who assisted him in winning great battles, some of which propelled him to the presidency. He adopted a Creek Indian baby, and sent him to the Hermitage to be raised.
Andrew Jackson embodies what is wrong with America. Even today, we still have a problem with racism, greed, and dishonor. These qualities in Jackson enabled him to push the Indian Removal Act into law. Gold had been recently discovered on Cherokee land before the law was passed. And, despite the Cherokee living in much the same way as their white neighbors, they were still regarded as another race inferior to whites. They had to be removed so the whites could get to the gold and the fertile land. It was these traits that allowed Jackson to despicably turn his back on these very Natives who helped him in his greatest military triumphs.
Probably worst of all was the story of his adopted Indian son, Lyncoya. Some think Jackson initially took him in as a pet for his son, Andrew, Jr. Jackson's wife Rachel grew fond of the Indian boy, and treated him more like a family member. A letter written by Jackson to his wife reads of a fondness of the boy, too, but I only saw words written to make his beloved wife happy. I personally sensed no real love for Lyncoya in those letters.
The ultimate proof of Lyncoya's place in Andrew Jackson's heart is in the location of the Indian boy's grave. While many of Jackson's family is buried alongside him and Rachel, Lyncoya's grave is nowhere to be found.
The ultimate proof of Lyncoya's place in Andrew Jackson's heart is in the location of the Indian boy's grave. While many of Jackson's family is buried alongside him and Rachel, Lyncoya's grave is nowhere to be found.
The story at the Hermitage is that the boy's grave was hidden at first to discourage the Creek Indians from stealing the body for re-burial because of the non-Creek way he was interred. Then the location of the grave was lost over time.
My feeling is Lyncoya was buried away from the future family plot much like the slaves of the day. The only reason the buried slaves had headstones is because the slaves themselves made them. There was no Native American around to do the same for Lyncoya. My feelings for Andrew Jackson remain unchanged. Lyncoyaby Ron Cooper on 02/03/11